The Second Ring

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We promise not to use your email address for anything but exclusive updates from the Power Automedia Network. About Us Sponsors Advertising. Cometic Introduces Toyota 5. Shop Tour: SoCal Diesel. Under Pressure For our first question, we asked Stevenson whether the second ring had a role in containing compression or combustion gasses. Article Sources. Latest News. Engine Buildup. Dyno Testing. More Stories. Horsepower delivered to your inbox. Subscribe Now. We'll send you raw engine tech articles, news, features, and videos every week from EngineLabs.

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Only a few detailed studies of methods for measuring instantaneous ring rotation have been published. Examples of the radioactive measurements of piston-ring motion. Engines with quartz windows to permit optical access are widely used in combustion studies.

When the Bough Breaks

In principle, it would be possible to arrange quartz windows in engines to permit the study of piston-ring movement by optical means. However, the author has not been able to trace published reports of studies of this type.

Piston rings are usually made of cast iron and steel. Wear resistance is an important requirement in the materials used for their manufacture. The material should also have a low friction coefficient to enable the rings to slide along the cylinder's surface and should be able to withstand high pressures at various temperatures under limited lubrication conditions. It should not be prone to seizing when rings are moving in contact with a cylinder and should have a high modulus of elasticity to provide the required specific pressure upon a cylinder's surface , high yield strength and hardness.

Grey modified cast iron meets the above requirements.

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The properties of grey modified cast iron mostly depend on the structure formed during the casting process. In order to improve the mechanical characteristics of the rings, centrifugal casting with subsequent heat treatment is applied.

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  4. To improve the material properties, a small amount of chrome, copper, molybdenum, vanadium and tin additives are used. Piston rings and cylinder wear with alcohols has been reported [ 74 ]. However, it was attributed mainly to the long warm-up times with rich mixtures that would dissolve the oil film in the cylinders. Nowadays, this would probably not be a concern, due to improved engine warm-up from modern engine management systems.

    Some studies also report corrosive wear [ 58 ] that could be caused by combustion by-products, attacking mainly piston rings and cylinders [ 75 ]. This also is much less likely to be a problem nowadays due to improved engine management systems leading to cleaner and more complete combustion.

    Unholy - (1994) The Second Ring of Power [Full-length]

    Nevertheless, another study states that no noticeable difference in wear was found when running with E85 in comparison to gasoline [ 76 ]. It is also reported that valve seats should be specially designed to operate with alcohol-based fuels since they have less lubricity than pure gasolines [ 36 ].

    However, the experience of 30 years of ethanol-fueled vehicles in Brazil has shown no significant problems with engines. It is common knowledge that lubricants get less contamination and last longer, and engines are cleaner and less subject to sludge formation, when using ethanol.

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    A piston ring wear model was briefly introduced by Taylor , which was analogous to the model developed for cams and followers by Colgan and Bell Pint and Schock simulated piston ring wear by using a generalized total wear coefficient to account for all the wear mechanisms involved, including adhesive, abrasive, and corrosive wear. The wear mechanisms of piston rings and cylinder liner with the use of high-sulfur diesel fuel were also studied by Takakura et al. They believed that the wear mechanisms with the use of high-sulfur fuel were dominated by a combination of corrosive wear and abrasive wear caused by the formation of aqueous sulfuric acid via acid condensation at the EGR cooler outlet.

    The wear at the piston pin and the connecting rod small-end bush was studied by Merritt et al. The piston ring wall thickness was used to determine the level of wear after the extended tests. The difference in wall thickness is taken as a measure of the wear.

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    The differences in wear between series production honing and honing with laser texture is not the same in all cases. The wear measurements for cylinders 2,3 and 5 are shown here as examples, Figure Whilst the piston ring wear on cylinder 1 with laser texture is greater than with series production honing, the tendency is opposite for cylinder 5.

    Cylinders 1, 3 and 4 show a balanced wear response. The piston ring is essentially a seal with a spring-like property. Similar rings are also used in other piston and cylinder mechanisms, such as compressors or hydraulic devices. The piston ring of an internal combustion engine must be designed with sufficient heat resistance to withstand exposure to high- temperature gas.

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    The single-piece metallic piston ring with self tension, which is generally used in internal combustion engines, was first invented by J. Ramsbottom in The positions of the piston ring grooves have already been illustrated in Fig. A piston generally uses three or more rings. Top and second rings two rings on the left and assembled three-piece oil control ring on the right. There is also a one-piece oil ring. Phenomena taking place around piston rings.

    The piston rings seal in the combustion gas. The rings also control the thickness of the oil film on the cylinder wall, providing hydrodynamic lubrication which sustains a high thrust load. In addition, the rings also play an important role in cooling the piston head. The combustion heat received by the piston head flows into the cylinder wall through the piston rings. A high rotational velocity is necessary to generate high power output, requiring light piston rings with low friction and high wear resistance. Cast iron rings were often used in the past.

    However, more demanding requirements have increased the use of steel piston rings coated with various surface treatments. Functions of piston rings, particularly illustrated to generate high power output. Generally, four-stroke petrol engines use three rings per cylinder, whilst two-stroke engines use only two.

    The oil control ring consists of three individual pieces, two side rails and a spacer the corrugated sheet, Fig. The second ring is shown with the expander located inside. The expander supports the second ring described later in Fig. To obtain the same tension with a one piece ring, the thickness needs to be increased, which in turn makes the ring much heavier. Piston rings for a two-stroke engine.

    The expander put at the center takes free state. When set into the piston ring groove, it spreads and gives additional force from the back of the second ring as shown in Fig. Some diesel engines use more than three rings. In order to obtain high revolutions and quick response by reducing the weight of moving parts, fewer rings are preferred. The piston ring pack plays an important part in the operation of an internal combustion IC engine. The seal it forms to prevent escape of high-pressure gases during combustion is integral to engine efficiency.

    Ring pack lubrication is essential for smooth running and long life. Sufficient separation of piston skirt and ring pack from the cylinder wall reduces the frictional losses in an IC engine. This time the oil economy was M. Figure 3 shows this graphically.

    Figure 2 also contains the reason for the poor oil control. With the taper of the ring upside down, oil will be scraped up with each upward stroke to be left in the combustion chamber and burned on the power stroke. It only takes a minute, check all rings on the piston for correct installation before installing the pistons. To illustrate what can happen with just one ring installed upside down Hastings installed a new V-6 engine on a dynamometer in our engine test laboratory and ran the engine for 80 hours with all rings installed correctly The engine's oil economy was miles per quart M.